Patient Education Term Category: Toe Problems

Overlapping and Underlapping Toes

Overlapping and underlapping toes occur when toes are out of position. The conditions can be congenital due to inheritance or the fetus’s in-utero position, or they can develop over time from ill-fitting footwear that constricts or pressures the toes, keeping them bunched rather than flat. It can also stem from a bunion. An overlapping toe […]

Hammertoe

Hammertoe occurs when the second, third, or fourth toe bends at the middle joint, often as a result of wearing ill-fitting shoes. Genetics, arthritis, and muscle imbalance can also cause hammertoe. The affected toe resembles a hammer, which is where the deformity it gets its name. With hammertoe, the toe bends downward, rather than pointing […]

Hallux Varus

Hallux varus is a deformity of the big toe joint that results in the big toe pointing outward, or away from the other toes, whereas a bunion would cause the big toe to lean inward. Hallux varus can be congenital, or it can occur from overcorrective bunion surgery, a tight or short abductor hallucis tendon, […]

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus is a degenerative arthritis affecting the joint of the big toe that eventually causes the toe to become rigid, or unmovable. Over time, the toe’s motion decreases due to wear-and-tear that deteriorates the articular cartilage, making it difficult to walk, run, or climb stairs, all of which involve pushing off of the big […]

Hallux Limitus

Hallux limitus, an arthritic condition of the hallux, or big toe, involves stiffness in the joint at the base of the big toe. Abnormal alignment of the first metatarsal bone is usually the cause of the condition that restricts motion. Injury, overuse, and genetics are other reasons for the development of hallux limitus. Symptoms include […]

Enchondroma

Enchondromas develop in the bone underneath the toenail and are small, benign growths composed of cartilage. The tumors are composed of cartilage that forms in the bone and are usually painless, which is why they often go undiagnosed unless they are revealed during X-rays or screenings done for other diagnoses. Enchondromas that form at the […]

Claw Toe

Claw toe, also called claw foot, is a deformity that causes toes to bend upward or downward from a joint. The bottom part of the toe bends up from the joints at the ball of the foot, whereas the top part or tip of the toe bends down from the middle joints, taking on the […]

Bunions

A bunion is a deformity of the big toe joint that results from bone misalignment or repositioning at the joint. Although bunions occur most frequently at the base of the big toe, they can also arise on the outside of the foot at the base of the small toe. When the joint at the base […]

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